JUSTICE - No. 68

16 No. 68 JUSTICE directors and teachers to address these issues. They should introduce training against all forms of intolerance and racism, especially antisemitic prejudice and hate crimes, into their school curricula, into vocational training such as for those working in security and justice arenas, and into the curricula of social integration courses. They should strengthen support for intercultural and interfaith work involving Jewish communities and institutions and encourage exchanges between young people of different faiths and backgrounds. States are asked to commemorate the Holocaust publicly in close cooperation with the Jewish community, particularly on Holocaust Memorial Day. National parliaments should also be involved in this. States should ensure that the universality of genocide and racism are reflected in education and assess the effectiveness of its teaching. Countries are encouraged to actively engage in awareness campaigns against Holocaust denial, distortion, and trivialization, and adopt and implement the IHRA working definition of Holocaust denial and distortion. Finally, countries are encouraged to closely cooperate regionally and globally to address antisemitism through international organizations, including the United Nations and affiliated bodies and agencies. States should include the combating of antisemitism as part of their foreign policy priorities and ensure that the fight against antisemitism is incorporated into all their global human rights strategies and policies. Other European Union Initiatives Together with IHRA, and with the support of the German presidency during the latter part of 2020, the EC published a handbook in January 2021 which provides national authorities, practitioners, and civil society with guidance on using the IHRA definition of antisemitism. The compilers of the handbook spent a year questioning state authorities, educational institutions, and Jewish leaders to produce a comprehensive and accessible report.8 In November 2021, FRA published its annual “Overview of antisemitic incidents recorded in the European Union,” a document relied on by intergovernmental agencies and Jewish communities to aid policy formulation. The report demonstrated that antisemitism continues to rise, with more than 3000 antisemitic incidents recorded across the EU in 2019. Repeating a complaint made in previous years, FRA raised the criticism that too few states monitor antisemitic incidents in a consistent standard.9 The report also provides an overview of national action plans and other measures to prevent and combat antisemitism, as well as information on whether countries have adopted or endorsed the IHRA definition of antisemitism.10 To assess the success of national strategies, the EU is currently funding a project run by CEJI (Centre European Juif d’Information), with input from the World Jewish Congress, the European Union of Jewish Students, Bnai Brith Europe and others. Networks Overcoming Antisemitism (NOA) will provide a mechanism to support EU Member states’ development and implementation of national action plans, from education to culture and security, as required by the European Commission’s Strategy.11 Finally, in December 2021, the EC formally requested an opinion on its ambitious Strategy from the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), a body representing organized civil society in Europe, on initiatives undertaken by the EU institutions. This committee met in January and February 2022.12 Council of Europe Strengthens its Impact The Council of Europe (COE) is the oldest European agency founded in the aftermath of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. Its framework includes the European Court of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights, Parliamentary Assembly (PACE), Venice Commission (which provides legal advice to Member states), Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, Council of European and NonGovernmental Organizations, Commissioner for Human Rights and the European Commission against Racism and 8. European Commission, HANDBOOK FOR THE PRACTICAL USE OF THE IHRA WORKING DEFINITION OF ANTISEMITISM, Publications Office of the European Union (Jan. 8, 2021), available at https://op.europa.eu/o/opportal-service/ download-handler?identifier=d3006107-519b-11eb-b59f01aa75ed71a1&format=pdf&language=en&productionS ystem=cellar&part= 9. Supra note 5. 10. Ibid. pp. 82-90. 11. CEJI A Jewish Contribution to an Inclusive Europe, “About NOA,” NOA - Networks Overcoming Antisemitism (2022), available at https://www.noa-project.eu/about-noa/ 12. “EU Strategy on Combating Antisemitism, and Fostering Jewish Life,” SOC/704, European Economic and Social Committee (Jan. 4, 2022), available at https://www.eesc. europa.eu/en/our-work/opinions-information-reports/ opinions/eu-strategy-combating-antisemitism-andfostering-jewish-life