JUSTICE - No. 71

43 Spring 2024 Antisemitism-Report-2023.pdf; see also The White House Washington, “US National Strategy to Combat Antisemitism,” May 25, 2023, available at https: //www.whitehouse.gov/wp-content/uploads/2023/05/U.S.- National-Strategy-to-Counter-Antisemitism.pdf 17. ECRI General Policy Recommendation No. 9 (Revised) on preventing and combating Antisemitism, Council of Europe, Recommendation A3, adopted 1 July 2021, CRI(2021)28, available at https://www.coe.int/en/web/ european-commission-against-racism-and-intolerance/ recommendation-no.9 18. Combat Antisemitism Movement, “Representatives of 60 Cities to Participate in 2023 European Mayors Summit Against Antisemitism in Dortmund, Germany,” Nov. 28, 2023, available at https://combatantisemitism.org/pressrelease/representatives-of-60-cities-to-participate-in2023-european-mayors-summit-against-antisemitism-indortmund-germany/?utm_campaign=2023%20 Year-End%20Campaign%20Plan&utm_medium=email&_ hsmi=80391755&_hsenc=p2ANqtz--zfcwhAimzOEWagriwbW2mfFWj9JwFMcV5djPTiQXqvxQ0SbZ5mO0b6DP05_gwBJytqOaysh0NFjHdZ5FrcsWKB9kkdKzbHpoJnLBkZRcxtO4rX-c&utm_content=80391755&utm_ source=hs_email 19. See Report Cards NOA – a series of checks against states’ promises and actual performance, CEJI – A Jewish contribution to an inclusive Europe, available at https:// www.noa-project.eu/report-cards/ 20. ODIHR, “Understanding Anti-Semitic Hate Crimes and Addressing the Security Needs of Jewish Communities: A Practical Guide,” 2016, available at http://hdl.handle. net/20.500.12389/22403 Local Action The 2021 General Policy Recommendation No. 9 of the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI), a standing commission of the Council of Europe, advised Member States to ensure that the fight against antisemitism is carried out at “all administrative levels (national, regional, local) and that states must facilitate the involvement of a wide range of actors from different sectors of society.” ECRI also recommended that a national coordinator be appointed to ensure that efforts to combat antisemitism fall in line with the EU Strategy and to act as a bridge between states, their relevant public agencies, and various sectors of the Jewish community.17 It is to this local level that states’ attention should now be directed, and several civil society organizations have taken up the challenge of working with them. The Combat Antisemitism Movement has held several Mayors Summits against Antisemitism, at which municipal leaders and some national envoys have come together to focus on local initiatives.18 Networks Overcoming Antisemitism (NOA) evaluates EU Member States’ policies at a local level, and pays particular attention to items such as education, culture, and security. They also support Member States’ national action plans by preparing and publishing National Report Cards. These are based on areas of action in the EU Strategy and provide a method of benchmarking a state’s progress. The program is funded by the EU and was developed by CEJI with the assistance of the WJC, B’nai B’rith International and others.19 ECRI also recommends continuous antisemitism training at local, regional, and national levels for police officers, prosecutors, and the judiciary. I have previously referred to the Words Into Action program of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), which trains law enforcement officials, together with Jewish community staff, on the Jewish community’s security needs. Excellent though they have been, the funding only allows for one national seminar per state, yet within one or two years the trained police cohort will pass into other work within their force and an untrained cohort will take their place. Therefore, funding needs to accommodate repeated training every few years for new cohorts of police officers.20 Similar comments apply to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) education programs. Some of their programs are taught jointly with the ODIHR and train teachers on combating antisemitism through education by promoting effective practices and key policies. The work is also linked to countering hate speech, educating about the Holocaust and genocides and enhancing education as a tool to prevent violent extremism. At a regional level, UNESCO oversees an EC-funded two-year project to strengthen the educational systems of Member States against antisemitism. Policy makers and educators receive guidance and support to improve their teaching methods, activities, and materials. They are also trained to identify and counter Holocaust denial and distortion, respond to incidents of antisemitism in schools, and address online hate speech and conspiracy theories in the classroom. The project also involves research into how well-prepared European teachers are to address antisemitism and how Jews, Judaism, and antisemitism are presented in school textbooks and curricula.21