JUSTICE - No. 71

42 No. 71 JUSTICE combating antisemitism requires historical understanding and a wider range of responses. National Strategies on Combating Antisemitism National strategies are a vital step forward, but it is essential that they focus the attention and resources of the state down to the local level where most antisemitism is manifested. Again, progress in applying the Strategy’s recommendation will be monitored.15 Non-EU states are also adopting strategies that focus on antisemitism on the local level, and the national envoys and governments of the UK and the U.S. have published their own reports.16 To avoid discrepancies in data reporting, the CST also pioneered a formal mutual exchange of data with the police, whereby each side mutually exchanges all its information on antisemitic hate crime incidents and crimes, but in conformity with EU data protection legislation. Other initiatives include the development of national strategies to combat antisemitism, which should be included in national action plans against racism or developed as stand-alone strategies. There should also be an appointment of special envoys or coordinators to drive the action plans forward and to act as intermediaries with the Jewish communities. Finally, states are encouraged to provide sufficient funds to implement these plans. Again, the efficacy of the recommendations is charted through published findings and two other new initiatives provide fora to assist the work of the envoys. The EC and the World Jewish Congress (WJC) organize regular meetings of the envoys, and the Austrian Federal Chancellery hosts an annual meeting where the envoys implore their governments to commit to improving their responses to antisemitic incidents.12 Malmo Conference A second set of agreements dedicated to fighting antisemitism included those submitted by governments to the Swedish Government’s Malmo International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism, during which 60 government delegations pledged action in relation to the Forum themes. In their responses, states were invited to indicate which of their pledges had been fulfilled, and to provide an update on the status of those pledges that were still in progress. Again, there is a validation process since the Swedish Government noted that it will continue to monitor the implementation of the pledges.13 However, an independent review of the pledges by the WJC, commissioned by the Swedish Government, suggested that despite their good intentions, some of the governments’ pledges were not considered helpful by the Jewish communities, as they had failed to answer the communities’ real needs.14 The expertise of national criminal justice agencies is not in doubt, but they need to partner with communities in order to effectively identify their needs. The unique nature of antisemitism requires different tools than those appropriate for combating other forms of racism or bigotry. Governments frequently seek to cram all hate crimes into one box to make their job easier, yet 12. World Jewish Congress, Special Envoys and Coordinators Combating Antisemitism, available at https://www. worldjewishcongress.org/en/secca; see also European Commission, “Making antisemitism visible: towards a common methodology to record antisemitic incidents in the EU,” NEWSLETTER No. 31, June 3, 2022, available at https:// ec.europa.eu/newsroom/just/newsletter-archives/39222 13. Follow-up Report - Pledges presented at the Malmo Forum, Government Offices of Sweden, Feb. 10, 2023, available at https://www.government.se/articles/2023/02/ follow-up-report--pledges-presented-at-the-malmo-forum/ 14. World Jewish Congress, “WJC issues report outlining gaps in government action against antisemitism,” March 20, 2023, available at https://www.worldjewishcongress. org/en/news/wjc-issues-report-outlining-gaps-ingovernment-action-against-antisemitism; see also World Jewish Congress, “The Malmö Pledges on Combating Antisemitism, Fostering Jewish Life, and Promoting Holocaust Remembrance,” Oct. 2021, available at https:// wjc-org-website.s3.amazonaws.com/horizon/assets/ sn0w_w5N/230317_gap_analysis_report_ys_eh.pdf 15. European Commission, “National strategies on combating antisemitism - EU Member States that have adopted a national strategy,” available at https://commission.europa. eu/strategy-and-policy/policies/justice-and-fundamentalrights/combatting-discrimination/racism-and-xenophobia/ combating-antisemitism/eu-strategy-combatingantisemitism-and-fostering-jewish-life-2021-2030/ national-strategies-combating-antisemitism_en 16. Department for Communities and Local Government, “Government Action on Antisemitism,” OGL (Dec. 2014), available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov. uk/media/5a7d7479e5274a02dcdf49a5/Government_ Action_on_Antisemitism_final_24_Dec.pdf; see also HM Government's Independent Advisor on Antisemitism, “Anti-Jewish Hatred Tackling Antisemitism in the UK 2023 – Renewing the Commitment,” available at https:// antisemitism.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/PDF-