JUSTICE - No. 71

40 No. 71 JUSTICE ntroduction In recent years, the European Union (EU), the Council of Europe (CoE), and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) have enhanced their efforts to combat antisemitism and have improved their interagency collaboration. However, the consequences of Hamas’s invasion of Israel on October 7, 2023, may cause these improvements to regress. Various bodies tasked with monitoring the safety of Jewish communities have witnessed a deluge of antiJewish incidents which have overwhelmed them and their respective governments. For example, 4103 antisemitic incidents were recorded in the UK in 2023, a 246% increase over the 1662 incidents recorded in 2022; and 1676 incidents were recorded in France, a 384% increase over the 436 incidents the previous year.1 In response, such bodies are pressing for improved police protection and closer collaboration with state agencies. However, the publicly available data on antisemitism reflect only part of the reality, as many victims still fail to report the abuse they have suffered. Despite the foregoing, European states and their intergovernmental agencies have responded more effectively to the current rise in violent antisemitism than in the past. This is due in large part to their effectively laying the groundwork for combating antisemitism in recent years. This changing response warrants explanation. Although I focus on Europe in this article, the dramatic rise in antisemitism and subsequent responses have been worldwide. During a meeting with the State Department, Deborah Lipstadt, the U.S. Special Envoy for Monitoring and Combating Anti-Semitism, explained the rise thusly: “...the current moment is deeply concerning and has emboldened public expressions of antisemitism in a way not seen in decades…I’ve been working on this for over 30 years, and it feels different.”2 She said that officials she has met with around the world and within the State Department, including high-level national security officials in multiple countries, are also highly concerned. “I’m not saying that we’ve seen a creation of a whole new generation of antisemites,” she continued, “but that people feel more comfortable expressing antisemitic sentiments publicly.”3 Unfortunately, times like this call for acute awareness of a frustrating reality: some programs to combat antisemitism are quite long-term and require years of application. There are no short-term fixes for what constitutes a constant complaint. Thus, the U.S. Report on Policies, Programs and Actions Across the Globe to Combat Antisemitism, published in 2023, identifies more than 40 programs and policies that are regarded as successful in the fight against antisemitism. Among the requirements listed in the report are: naming the problem; endorsing the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) Working Definition of Antisemitism; quantifying the number of antisemitic incidents in a manner that is consistent with criminal justice standards; and identifying and disseminating good practices that offer workable solutions to fighting antisemitism.4 Europe’s Continuing Effort to Combat Antisemitism Michael Whine I 1. Antisemitic Incidents Report 2023, Community Security Trust, Feb. 15, 2024, available at https://cst.org.uk/news/ blog/2024/02/15/antisemitic-incidents-report-2023; see also Figures for antisemitism in France 2023, Service de Protection de la Communaute Juive, available at https://www.spcj.org/antis%C3%A9mitisme/figures-forantisemitism-france-2023 2. Marc Rod, ‘‘’The lid is off’: Lipstadt reflects on explosion of public antisemitism since Oct. 7,” JEWISH INSIDER, Nov. 21, 2023, available at https://jewishinsider. com/2023/11/u-s-antisemitism-envoy-deborah-lipstadtisrael-gaza/ 3. Id. 4. U.S. Department of State, Office of the Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Antisemitism, “Report on Policies, Programs, and Actions Across the Globe to Combat Antisemitism,” Sept. 27, 2023, available at https://www.state.gov/report-on-policies-programs-andactions-across-the-globe”-to-combat-antisemitism/