JUSTICE - No. 71

37 Spring 2024 13. European Commission, “Conclusion Paper: Antisemitism as a part of almost all extremist ideologies and narratives,“ RAN, June 6, 2022, available at https:// home-affairs.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2022-07/ran_cn_ antisemitism_29-30032022_en.pdf 14. Welcome to Campaign Against Antisemitism. 15. UK LAWYERS FOR ISRAEL (uklfi.com). 16. Success for CAA as Holocaust-denier Vincent Reynouard loses extradition appeal (antisemitism.org). 17. https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/hate-crimeengland-and-wales-2022-to-2023/hate-crime-englandand-wales-2022-to-2023 18. https://www.jpr.org.uk/ 19. Antisemitism in contemporary Great Britain | JPR, available at https://www.jpr.org.uk/ the groups.”13 Unlike the far-right narratives of Jews as a threat to the national and racial identity of the West, antisemitism within the far-left tends to be more intertwined with the struggle against capitalism. In recent decades, antisemitism has come to play an important part in Islamist extremist ideologies. Understanding antisemitism provides insight into the roots of many extremist groups. Legal Approach Using the law to challenge antisemitism is a key element to the work of organizations like the Campaign Against Antisemitism (CAA)14 and UK Lawyers for Israel (UKLFI).15 The latter use their legal skills to challenge antisemitism and support Israel while the CAA counters antisemitism through education and zero-tolerance enforcement of the law. The CAA played an instrumental role in ensuring that Vincent Reynouard, a French Holocaust-denier, will be extradited from the UK. Reynouard, a convicted Holocaust-denier, was awaiting an appeal decision from the court after a court in Scotland granted an extradition request from France. Reynouard was a fugitive in the UK who was caught following appeals from the CAA. According to the CAA, the extradition request was granted after the court determined that the postings for which Reynouard was found guilty in France would also be crimes in the UK under section 127 of the Communications Act 2003. In a different case in 2018, the CAA secured a legal precedent that Holocaust-denial is “grossly offensive” and therefore illegal when used as a means by which to hound Jews. When it is delivered via a medium of communication, it can fall within the purview of the Communications Act.16 Data To tackle antisemitism, it is key to collect the necessary data. In the UK we have improved police recording of hate crimes. Forces now capture data on all five monitored strands of hate crime: race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, and transgender identity. Since April 1, 2021, police forces have also been disaggregating hate crime by ethnicity. This is part of our government’s efforts to improve our understanding of all hate crime and builds on the successful disaggregation of religious hate crimes.17 Research Research is key to understanding perceptions. The Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR) is the only independent organization in the UK specializing in researching the state of contemporary Jewish life in the UK and across Europe. We have worked with the Institute for Jewish Policy Research on various surveys examining attitudes towards Jews and Israel.18 In its 2017 seminal report, JPR found that only a small proportion of British adults could be categorized as “hard-core” antisemites – approximately 2% – yet antisemitic ideas can be found at varying degrees of intensity across 30% of British society.19 This has been brought home to us in the days following October 7, 2023. It is crucial for countries wanting to tackle antisemitism to collect and analyze the relevant data to ensure that we are providing targeted support. Schools There must be a clear distinction between Holocaust education and education to address antisemitism. The best way to counter ignorance is through education. Lord Mann, the Independent Advisor on Antisemitism, initiated the “Education Partnership Initiative to Address Antisemitism in Schools.” Project partners include the University College London’s (UCL) Centre for Holocaust Education, the National Holocaust Centre and Museum, and Outwood Academy. The aim of the project is to support teachers to deepen specific knowledge and understanding and provide them with the necessary skills to enable them to teach about antisemitism, and to address any incidents that might occur. It also aims to support teachers in helping their students be informed about contemporary antisemitism, mindful of where it can develop, how it can appear, and what the consequences of it are. This project is now underway.