JUSTICE - No. 71

36 No. 71 JUSTICE believes that commitment is an important tool for criminal justice agencies and other public bodies to understand how antisemitism manifests itself in the 21st century. Specifically, it provides examples of the kinds of behavior that, depending on the circumstances, could constitute antisemitism. The fact that the definition is not legally binding is its strength, as it allows for easy adoption – it does not require legislation. The fact that it is a working definition is also a strength, as it acknowledges that the list of examples is not exhaustive and recognizes the possible inclusion of other examples that may emerge over time. Adoption is just the first step; we now need to focus on how the working definition is being applied. In the UK, we use the definition in full; the examples are key, they give a clear indication of how antisemitism can manifest itself in the 21st century. The definition is a useful guide for identifying the different types of antisemitic language that may be used during an incident. This has been particularly useful to our criminal justice system, the police, and social media companies. It is particularly helpful in incidents where rhetoric used by individuals criticizing Israel have crossed into antisemitism − often comparing or equating Israel with actions of the Nazi regime. Using this type of language is deliberate, with users being aware of the distress this type of language causes. Security Most governments in Europe provide security to Jewish communal buildings. While this is essential in the current climate, it is not a permanent solution to addressing antisemitism in the long term. The UK provides £16m per annum, which is administered by the CST – a leading organization that monitors antisemitism – to provide protective security measures at Jewish state, free and independent schools, colleges, nurseries, and some other Jewish community sites, as well as several synagogues. The success of this work has led to the establishment of the Places of Worship Protective Security Funding Scheme for other faiths. It has also led to the initiative Security Advice for Everyone (SAFE)10 which shares CST’s security knowledge with groups outside the Jewish community that are vulnerable to violence, extremism or hate crime. CST believes that building better relations across communities is a key element in reducing prejudice and bigotry of all forms, and it uses its expertise to make practical contributions across society. Extremism In October 2015, the British Government published its Counter-Extremism Strategy, which defines extremism as the vocal or active opposition to our fundamental values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and the mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. The Counter-Extremism Strategy contains a commitment to make it more explicit than the criteria for exclusion on the grounds of unacceptable behavior by including past or current extremist activity, either in the UK or overseas. A person who has previously engaged in unacceptable behavior may still be considered for exclusion, if his views were particularly abhorrent, even if he has since publicly retracted those views and has not re-engaged in such behavior.11 This is an excellent tool which prevents individuals who spew out hate speech from entering the UK. It has been very successful in excluding people who spout antisemitism. It includes criteria that allow exclusion for both violent and non-violent extremists. Our Home Secretary has made it clear that all those who advocate hatred or violence should be prevented from coming to the UK. The policy recognizes freedom of speech as a fundamental right, but one that must be used responsibly and not as a cover for causing offense and division. It is also important to note that exclusion decisions are made based on hard evidence, not hearsay.12 Risk Antisemitism has also proved to be a helpful proxy for determining the risk of extremism. The EU-initiated Radicalisation Awareness Network of Practitioners (RAN) argues that antisemitism is present in most extremist ideologies. “It is particularly pervasive in far-right ideologies, often forming the central element of the belief system and enacting as the common denominator between 10. “SAFE: Security Advice for Everyone,” Community Security Trust, available at http:|//cst/org.uk/about-cst/ safe-security-advice-for-everyone 11. Home Office, “Exclusion from the UK,” Version 6.0 (July 24, 2023), p. 16, available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/64c21b33c97353000d3e5690/ Exclusion_from_the_UK.pdf 12. Melanie Gower, “‘Visa bans’: Powers to refuse or revoke immigration permission for reasons of character, conduct or associations,” UK Parliament, HOUSE OF COMMONS LIBRARY, July 21, 2016, available at https:// commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/ sn07035/

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